Licencja pilota samolotu i uprawnienia

Być może jeśli zgłębiasz temat nauki pilotażu i kariery w awiacji zastanawiasz się jak to jest z licencją pilota i uprawnieniami. W przypadku samolotów sprawa wygląda nieco inaczej niż przy samochodach. Musisz rozróżnić czym jest licencja pilota i uprawnienia, które są do niej wpisywane. Poniżej informacje dotyczą tylko licencji samolotowych, zupełnie pomijam kwestie licencji śmigłowcowej, balonowej, szybowcowej itd.. A jak już się z nimi zapoznasz, to zachęcam do zrobienia pierwszego kroku.

Zacznę od tego, że EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) nie wydaje licencji. W każdym Państwie jest wyznaczony urząd, który jest odpowiedzialny za wydawanie dokumentu jakim jest licencja pilota. W przypadku Polski jest to Urząd Lotnictwa Cywilnego. Wydaje on licencje zgodne z przepisami i standardami ustalonymi przez EASA. Dzięki temu w każdym państwie członkowskim wymogi są te same. Pod tym względem sytuacja wygląda trochę podobnie do prawa jazdy. Niezależnie od tego gdzie je zrobisz, uprawnia Cię ono do kierowania pojazdem w różnych państwach. Na tym etapie podobieństwa niestety się kończą.

Licencja pilota – można mieć 4 rodzaje licencji samolotowych:

  • LAPL(A) czyli licencję pilota samolotowego rekreacyjnego
  • PPL(A) czyli licencję pilota samolotowego turystycznego
  • CPL(A) czyli licencję pilota samolotowego zawodowego
  • ATPL(A) czyli licencję pilota samolotowego liniowego

Licencja pilota – czym się różnią i jakie są jej rodzaje?

Powyższe licencje można podzielić na licencje general aviation i licencje zawodowe. Z licencjami general aviation (LAPL i PPL) nie można pobierać opłat za czynności lotnicze. Wyjątkiem są uprawnienia instruktora lub egzaminatora. Z licencjami zawodowymi (CPL i ATPL) możesz pobierać opłaty za czynności lotnicze, czyli możesz oficjalnie zarabiać na lataniu.

licencja pilota samolotowego

Do czego uprawnia Cię sama licencja pilota? 

Do niczego, a dokładnie mówiąc to uprawnia Cię do zdobycia uprawnień. Z “gołą” licencją nie możesz latać samolotem, nawet w idealnych warunkach pogodowych w środku dnia. Dobra wiadomość natomiast jest taka, że licencja jest dożywotnia, więc nie ma swojego terminu ważności, który trzeba przedłużać.

Z samą “gołą” licencją niestety nie polatasz.

Jak to jest w takim razie, że zapisujesz się na kurs, robisz licencję i możesz latać? 

Podczas kursu robisz od razu uprawnienia na samolot jednosilnikowy, tłokowy SEPL – Single Engine Piston Land. Z tym uprawnieniem możesz latać samolotem jednosilnikowym, tłokowym, lądowym o masie startowej do 5700 kg. To, jak każde uprawnienie musisz już przedłużać. Uprawnienie SEPL jest ważne 2 lata. Od momentu zrobienia licencji przez ten czas nawet nie musisz latać, ale gdy zbliża się termin wygaśnięcia uprawnienia musisz je przedłużyć.

Jak przedłużyć uprawnienie SEPL z nalotu? 

Najłatwiej będzie jeśli wybierzesz się do ośrodka szkolenia i zrobisz lot. W okresie 3 miesięcy przed upływem daty ważności musisz zaliczyć w obecności egzaminatora kontrolę umiejętności na odpowiedniej klasie samolotu. Możesz również przedłużyć uprawnienie “z nalotu” jeśli w okresie 12 miesięcy upływem daty ważności uprawnienia wykonasz 12 godzin lotu na odpowiedniej klasie samolotu. W tych dwunastu godzinach musisz mieć: 

  • minimum 6 godzin jako pilot dowódca,
  • 12 startów i lądowań,
  • lot szkolny o długości co najmniej 1 godziny, który odbył się z instruktorem szkolenia ogólnego (FI) lub instruktorem klasy (CRI)*.

*Jeśli masz zaliczoną kontrolę umiejętności do uprawnienia na klasę lub na typ albo zdany egzamin praktyczny na samolocie innej klasy lub typu to nie musisz robić tego lotu. Wystarczy spełnienie dwóch pierwszych warunków.

Pamiętaj, że przedłużenie “z nalotu” możesz zrobić tylko przed wygaśnięciem daty ważności uprawnienia. Jeśli ten termin minie nawet o jeden dzień musisz polecieć na lot kontrolny.

Rating, czyli uprawnienia wpisywane w licencję pilota.

Jednym z takich uprawnień jest na przykład wyżej omówiony SEPL. Uprawnienia, które robisz, są dodatkowo wpisywane do licencji. Najczęściej są ograniczane czasowo i musisz je przedłużać, ale za to dają ci dodatkowe przywileje. Z dodatkowymi uprawnieniami lub zdjętymi ograniczeniami możesz: 

  • zacząć latać w nocy – VFR noc (ale nadal w warunkach dobrej pogody). To jest ograniczenie, więc nie wymaga lotu z egzaminatorem ULC i jest nadawane bezterminowo,
  • latać samolotem dwusilnikowym tłokowym – uprawnienia MEPL (Multi Engine Piston Land),
  • wykonywać loty według wskazań przyrządów – uprawnienia IR (Instrument Rating),
  • latać akrobacje
  • holować szybowce,
  • holować banery,
  • latać w górach itd..

Tak więc teoretycznie jest możliwe, że przytrafi się sytuacja w której masz prawo latać dużym pasażerskim samolotem, a jednocześnie nie możesz polecieć małą cessną na wycieczkę nad morze.

Dodatkowych uprawnień możliwych do zrobienia jest bardzo dużo i nie musisz ich robić wszystkich. Jeśli Twoim celem jest praca w liniach lotniczych to musisz zrobić VFR noc, MEPL i IR.

Na koniec pamiętaj również, że podczas lotu samolotem musisz mieć przy sobie licencję z ważnymi uprawnieniami do rodzaju lotu, który wykonujesz, ważne badania medyczne i dokument ze zdjęciem potwierdzający Twoją tożsamość.


Cały wpis, może wydawać się nieinteresujący i banalny dla osób latających, ale dla ludzi, którzy dopiero zaczynają lub dopiero zainteresowali się tematem być może co nie co wyjaśni. Sama wielokrotnie już tłumaczyłam jak to jest z tymi licencjami, co można z nimi robić i, że to nie działa do końca jak prawo jazdy 😉 Pamiętaj, że każdy był kiedyś na samym początku drogi.

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